personal computer operating system by Microsoft released in
|A version of the Windows NT operating system|
Windows 8 Start screen, showing default live tile arrangement.
|Released to |
|August1, ; 8years ago()|
|October26, ; 7years ago()|
|Final release|| (Build ) / August1, ; 8years ago()|
|Update method||Windows Update, Windows Store, Windows Server Update Services|
|License||Trialware, Microsoft Software Assurance, MSDN subscription, DreamSpark|
|Preceded by||Windows 7 ()|
|Succeeded by||Windows ()|
|Official website||standardservices.com.pk (archived at Wayback Machine)|
|All editions except Windows Embedded 8 Standard:|
- Unsupported as of January 12,
- Users must install a Windows update for their edition in order to continue to receive updates and support.
Windows Embedded 8 Standard:
Windows 8 is an operating system that was produced by Microsoft, released as part of the Windows NT family of operating systems. The product was released to manufacturing on August 1, , and generally to retail on October 26,  It is the successor to Windows 7.
Windows 8 introduced major changes to the operating system's platform and user interface to improve its user experience on tablets, where Windows was now competing with mobile operating systems, including Android and iOS. In particular, these changes included a touch-optimized Windows shell based on Microsoft's "Metro"design language, the Start screen (which displays programs and dynamically updated content on a grid of tiles), a new platform for developing "apps" with an emphasis on touchscreen input, integration with online services (including the ability to synchronize apps and settings between devices), and Windows Store, an online distribution for downloading and purchasing new software. Windows 8 added support for USB , Advanced Format hard drives, near field communications, and cloud computing. Additional security features were introduced, such as built-in antivirus software, integration with Microsoft SmartScreenphishing filtering service and support for UEFI Secure Boot on supported devices with UEFI firmware, to prevent malware from infecting the boot process.
Windows 8 was released to a mixed critical reception. Although reaction towards its performance improvements, security enhancements, and improved support for touchscreen devices was positive, the new user interface of the operating system was widely criticized for being potentially confusing and difficult to learn, especially when used with a keyboard and mouse instead of a touchscreen. Despite these shortcomings, 60 million Windows 8 licenses were sold through January , a number that included both upgrades and sales to OEMs for new PCs.
Microsoft released Windows in October , addressing some aspects of Windows 8 that were criticized by reviewers and early adopters and incorporated additional improvements to various aspects of the operating system. Windows 8 was ultimately succeeded by Windows 10 in July Microsoft stopped providing support and updates for Windows 8 RTM since January 12, , and Windows must be installed to maintain support and receive further updates per Microsoft lifecycle policies regarding service packs. Support for IE10 on Windows Server  and Windows Embedded 8 Standard ended on January 31, Market share had fallen to % by September 
In August , computer experts reported that the BlueKeepsecurity vulnerability, CVE, that potentially affects older unpatched Microsoft Windows versions via the program's Remote Desktop Protocol, allowing for the possibility of remote code execution, may now include related flaws, collectively named DejaBlue, affecting newer Windows versions (i.e., Windows 7 and all recent versions). In addition, experts reported a Microsoftsecurity vulnerability, CVE, based on legacy code involving Microsoft CTF and ctfmon (standardservices.com.pk), that affects all Windows versions from the older Windows XP version to the most recent Windows 10 versions; a patch to correct the flaw is currently available.
Windows 8 development started before Windows 7 had shipped in  At the Consumer Electronics Show in January , it was announced that the next version of Windows would add support for ARMsystem-on-chips alongside the existing x86 processors produced by vendors, especially AMD and Intel. Windows division president Steven Sinofsky demonstrated an early build of the port on prototype devices, while Microsoft CEO Steve Ballmer announced the company's goal for Windows to be "everywhere on every kind of device without compromise." Details also began to surface about a new application framework for Windows 8 codenamed "Jupiter", which would be used to make "immersive" applications using XAML (similarly to Windows Phone and Silverlight) that could be distributed via a new packaging system and a rumored application store.
The earliest build of Windows 8 is build , leaked on December 25, The build was identical to Windows 7 except for the wallpaper being different - the same one from the Beta and Release Candidate. In addition, there were references to Windows 8 in this build.
Two milestone releases of Windows 8 and one of Windows Server leaked to the general public. Milestone 1, Build , was leaked on April 12,  It was the first build where the text of a window was written centered instead of aligned to the left. It was also probably the first appearance of the Metro-style font, and its wallpaper had the text shhh. let's not leak our hard work. However, its detailed build number reveals that the build was created on September 22,  The leaked copy was Enterprise edition, with other editions leaking later. In , it was discovered that Metro existed in this build, after enabling the 'Redpill'. The start screen was very primitive, being a white screen with gray tiles. The charms bar was also included, but was unusable. The OS still reads as "Windows 7". Milestone 2, Build , was leaked on April 25, The traditional Blue Screen of Death (BSoD) was replaced by a new black screen, although this was later scrapped. This build introduced a new ribbon in Windows Explorer. The "Windows 7" logo was temporarily replaced with text displaying "Microsoft Confidential". Both builds and leaked alongside Windows Server build On June 17, , build bit edition was leaked. It introduced a new boot screen featuring the same fish as the default Windows 7 Beta wallpaper, which was later scrapped, and the circling dots as featured in the final (although the final version comes with smaller circling dots throbber). It also had the text Welcome below them, although this was also scrapped. The boot screen was not new to this build though - it came from build , a slightly earlier build. It is worth mentioning that most of these leaks "hid" the main Metro UI features that were to come in tweak known as Redlock in order to prevent relevant leaks. A patch named Redpill was necessary to reveal the new Metro UI as well as the redesigned Start Screen, Lock Screen and apps. Several applications have tried to replicate this patch as closely as possible, although one called Redlock is the most accurate, supporting the enabling of builds' Metro UI from It also worked on the Developer Preview.
This build also leaked in the x86 architecture as a debug build, with the setup having a slight change - the theme was now Windows Basic in setup, rather than Classic.
Build was the first build to remove the User Tile. A new wallpaper was introduced and Metro was updated to be more like the final version of Windows 8.
On June 1, , Microsoft unveiled Windows 8's new user interface, as well as additional features at both Computex Taipei and the D9: All Things Digital conference in California.
The "Building Windows 8" blog launched on August 15, , featuring details surrounding Windows 8's features and its development process.
A screenshot of Windows 8 Developer Preview running on a multi-monitor system, showcasing some features
As Windows 8 transitioned away from being in the Milestone phase of development, the Developer Preview was beginning to take shape.
Build changed the branding to Windows Developer Preview and was the last build to use Windows 7 branding anywhere.
Build introduced several changes to the interface and small stability improvements. The boot screen was changed to say Windows Developer Preview, Metro was updated to be more like the Metro in Developer Preview (although it was still different) and a new wallpaper was introduced.
Microsoft unveiled more Windows 8 features and improvements on the first day of the Build conference on September 13,  Microsoft released the first public beta build of Windows 8, Windows Developer Preview (build ) at the event. A Samsung tablet running the build was also distributed to conference attendees.
The build was released for download later that day in standard bit and bit variants, plus a special bit variant which included SDKs and developer tools (Visual Studio Express and Expression Blend) for developing Metro-style apps. The Windows Store was announced during the presentation, but was not available in this build. According to Microsoft, there were about , downloads of the developer preview within the first 12 hours of its release. Originally set to expire on March 11, , in February the Developer Preview's expiry date was changed to January 15, 
The new File Explorer interface with "Ribbon" in Windows 8
The next step was the Consumer Preview, sometimes called Windows 8 Beta in the builds before it.
Build is the earliest leaked post-Developer Preview build. This build removed Redpill, and Metro was enabled by default with no way to disable it.
Build featured new branding - Windows 8 Beta. The Consumer Preview wallpapers have now been added, and the setup color has been changed to be the same as the final Consumer Preview.
Build is largely the same as , although it removes the Start Button from the taskbar. While the start button could be removed in early Milestone 2 (and this persisted through Windows 8 development) with a registry key, this build disabled it by default with no way to turn it back on. The branding is now identical to the Consumer Preview.
On February 19, , Microsoft unveiled a new logo to be adopted for Windows 8. Designed by Pentagram partner Paula Scher, the Windows logo was changed to resemble a set of four window panes. Additionally, the entire logo is now rendered in a single solid color.
On February 29, , Microsoft released Windows 8 Consumer Preview, the beta version of Windows 8, build Alongside other changes, the build brought over the big change from build removing the Start button from the taskbar for the first time in a public build since its debut on Windows 95; according to Windows manager Chaitanya Sareen, the Start button was removed to reflect their view that on Windows 8, the desktop was an "app" itself, and not the primary interface of the operating system. Windows president Steven Sinofsky said more than , changes had been made since the developer version went public. The day after its release, Windows 8 Consumer Preview had been downloaded over one million times. Like the Developer Preview, the Consumer Preview expired on January 15,
Development on the third and final preview of Windows 8, the Release Preview, began shortly after Consumer Preview with build
Build was a build in between the Consumer and Release Previews. This build includes a new wallpaper and several changes, such as the new logo replacing the old one and appearing in the About Windows dialog box.
Many other builds may exist or were released until the Japan's Developers Day conference, when Steven Sinofsky announced that Windows 8 Release Preview (build ) would be released during the first week of June. On May 28, , Windows 8 Release Preview (Standard Simplified Chinese x64 edition, not China-specific variant, build ) was leaked online on various Chinese and BitTorrent websites. On May 31, , Windows 8 Release Preview was released to the public by Microsoft. Major items in the Release Preview included the addition of Sports, Travel, and News apps, along with an integrated variant of Adobe Flash Player in Internet Explorer. Like the Developer Preview and the Consumer Preview, the release preview expired on January 15,
Windows 8 launch event at Pier 57 in New York City
With the Release Preview of Windows 8 finished, Microsoft began work on the final release.
Build is the last leaked build to contain Aero. It was dropped in build and seen for two builds after
Build removed Desktop Gadgets. It was identical to , which removed Aero. This build and the x86 variant of build were built in the interestingly named 'fbl_ie_longhorn' branch.
Build was leaked in December , and was identical to the RTM with the exception of the timebomb and missing apps.
On August 1, , Windows 8 (build ) was released to manufacturing with the build number  Microsoft planned to hold a launch event on October 25,  and release Windows 8 for general availability on the next day. However, only a day after its release to manufacturing, a copy of the final version of Windows 8 Enterprise N (a variant for European markets which lacks bundled media players to comply with an antitrust ruling) leaked online, followed by leaks of the final versions of Windows 8 Pro and Enterprise a few days later. On August 15, , Windows 8 was made available to download for MSDN and TechNet subscribers. Windows 8 was made available to Software Assurance customers on August 16,  Windows 8 was made available for students with a DreamSpark Premium subscription on August 22, , earlier than advertised.
Relatively few changes were made from the Release Preview to the final version; these included updated versions of its pre-loaded apps, the renaming of Windows Explorer to File Explorer, the replacement of the Aero Glass theme from Windows Vista and 7 with a new flat and solid-color theme as seen in build , and the addition of new background options for the Start screen, lock screen, and desktop. Prior to its general availability on October 26, , updates were released for some of Windows 8's bundled apps, and a "General Availability Cumulative Update" (which included fixes to improve performance, compatibility, and battery life) was released on Tuesday, October 9, Microsoft indicated that due to improvements to its testing infrastructure, general improvements of this nature are to be released more frequently through Windows Update instead of being relegated to OEMs and service packs only.
Microsoft began an advertising campaign centered around Windows 8 and its Surface tablet in October , starting with its first television advertisement premiering on October 14,  Microsoft's advertising budget of US$–billion was significantly larger than the US$ million campaign used to promote Windows  As part of its campaign, Microsoft set up 34 pop-up stores inside malls to showcase the Surface product line, provided training for retail employees in partnership with Intel, and collaborated with the electronics store chain Best Buy to design expanded spaces to showcase devices. In an effort to make retail displays of Windows 8 devices more "personal", Microsoft also developed a character known in English-speaking markets as "Allison Brown", whose fictional profile (including personal photos, contacts, and emails) is also featured on demonstration units of Windows 8 devices.
Windows 8 Pro DVD case, containing a bit and a bit installation disc
In May , Microsoft launched a new television campaign for Windows 8 illustrating the capabilities and pricing of Windows 8 tablets in comparison to the iPad, which featured the voice of Siri remarking on the iPad's limitations in a parody of Apple's "Get a Mac" advertisements. On June 12, during game 1 of the Stanley Cup Finals, Microsoft premiered the first ad in its "Windows Everywhere" campaign, which promoted Windows 8, Windows Phone 8, and the company's suite of online services as an interconnected platform.
New and changed features
New features and functionality in Windows 8 include a faster startup through UEFI integration and the new "Hybrid Boot" mode (which hibernates the Windows kernel on shutdown to speed up the subsequent boot), a new lock screen with a clock and notifications, and the ability for enterprise users to create live USB variants of Windows (known as Windows To Go). Windows 8 also adds native support for USB devices, which allow for faster data transfers and improved power management with compatible devices, and hard disk 4KB Advanced Format support, as well as support for near field communication to facilitate sharing and communication between devices.
Windows Explorer, which has been renamed File Explorer, now includes a ribbon in place of the command bar. File operation dialog boxes have been updated to provide more detailed statistics, the ability to pause file transfers, and improvements in the ability to manage conflicts when copying files. A new "File History" function allows incremental revisions of files to be backed up to and restored from a secondary storage device, while Storage Spaces allows users to combine different sized hard disks into virtual drives and specify mirroring, parity, or no redundancy on a folder-by-folder basis. For easier management of files and folders, Windows 8 introduces the ability to move selected files or folders via drag and drop from a parent folder into a subfolder listed within the breadcrumb hierarchy of the address bar in File Explorer.
Task Manager has been redesigned, including a new processes tab with the option to display fewer or more details of running applications and background processes, a heat map using different colors indicating the level of resource usage, network and disk counters, grouping by process type (e.g. applications, background processes and Windows processes), friendly names for processes and a new option which allows users to search the web to find information about obscure processes. Additionally, the Blue Screen of Death has been updated with a simpler and modern design with less technical information displayed.
Safety and security
New security features in Windows 8 include two new authentication methods tailored towards touchscreens (PINs and picture passwords), the addition of antivirus capabilities to Windows Defender (bringing it in parity with Microsoft Security Essentials).SmartScreen filtering integrated into Windows,Family Safety offers Parental controls, which allows parents to monitor and manage their children's activities on a device with activity reports and safety controls. Windows 8 also provides integrated system recovery through the new "Refresh" and "Reset" functions, including system recovery from USB drive. Windows 8's first security patches would be released on November 13, ; it would contain three fixes deemed "critical" by the company.
Windows 8 supports a feature of the UEFI specification known as "Secure boot", which uses a public-key infrastructure to verify the integrity of the operating system and prevent unauthorized programs such as bootkits from infecting the device's boot process. Some pre-built devices may be described as "certified" by Microsoft; these must have secure boot enabled by default, and provide ways for users to disable or re-configure the feature. ARM-based Windows RT devices must have secure boot permanently enabled.
Online services and functionality
Windows 8 provides heavier integration with online services from Microsoft and others. A user can now log into Windows with a Microsoft account, which can be used to access services and synchronize applications and settings between devices. Windows 8 also ships with a client app for Microsoft's SkyDrivecloud storage service, which also allows apps to save files directly to SkyDrive. A SkyDrive client for the desktop and File Explorer is not included in Windows 8, and must be downloaded separately. Bundled multimedia apps are provided under the Xbox brand, including Xbox Music, Xbox Video, and the Xbox SmartGlass companion for use with an Xbox console. Games can integrate into an Xbox Live hub app, which also allows users to view their profile and Gamerscore. Other bundled apps provide the ability to link Flickr and Facebook. Due to Facebook Connect service changes, Facebook support is disabled in all bundled apps effective June 8, 
Internet Explorer 10 is included as both a desktop program and a touch-optimized app, and includes increased support for HTML5, CSS3, and hardware acceleration. The Internet Explorer app does not support plugins or ActiveX components, but includes a variant of Adobe Flash Player that is optimized for touch and low power usage. Initially, Adobe Flash would only work on sites included on a "Compatibility View" whitelist; however, after feedback from users and additional compatibility tests, an update in March changed this behavior to use a smaller blacklist of sites with known compatibility issues instead, allowing Flash to be used on most sites by default. The desktop variant does not contain these limitations.
Windows 8 also incorporates improved support for mobile broadband; the operating system can now detect the insertion of a SIM card and automatically configure connection settings (including APNs and carrier branding), and reduce its Internet usage in order to conserve bandwidth on metered networks. Windows 8 also adds an integrated airplane mode setting to globally disable all wireless connectivity as well. Carriers can also offer account management systems through Windows Store apps, which can be automatically installed as a part of the connection process and offer usage statistics on their respective tile.
Windows Store apps
Snap feature: Xbox Music, alongside Photos snapped into a sidebar to the right side of the screen
Snap feature: Desktop, along Wikipedia App snapped into a sidebar to the right side of the screen. In Windows 8, desktop and everything on it is treated as one Metro-style app.
Windows 8 introduces a new style of application, Windows Store apps. According to Microsoft developer Jensen Harris, these apps are to be optimized for touchscreen environments and are more specialized than current desktop applications. Apps can run either in a full-screen mode or be snapped to the side of a screen. Apps can provide toast notifications on screen or animate their tiles on the Start screen with dynamic content. Apps can use "contracts"; a collection of hooks to provide common functionality that can integrate with other apps, including search and sharing. Apps can also provide integration with other services; for example, the People app can connect to a variety of different social networks and services (such as Facebook, Skype, and People service), while the Photos app can aggregate photos from services such as Facebook and Flickr.
Retail variants of Windows 8 are only able to install these apps through Windows Store— a namesake distribution platform that offers both apps, and listings for desktop programs certified for comparability with Windows 8. A method to sideload apps from outside Windows Store is available to devices running Windows 8 Enterprise and joined to a domain; Windows 8 Pro and Windows RT devices that are not part of a domain can also sideload apps, but only after special product keys are obtained through volume licensing.
The term "Immersive app" had been used internally by Microsoft developers to refer to the apps prior to the first official presentation of Windows 8, after which they were referred to as "Metro-style apps" in reference to the Metro design language. The term was phased out in August ; a Microsoft spokesperson denied rumors that the change was related to a potential trademark issue, and stated that "Metro" was only a codename that would be replaced prior to Windows 8's release. Following these reports, the terms "Modern UI-style apps", "Windows 8-style apps" and "Windows Store apps" began to be used by various Microsoft documents and material to refer to the new apps. In an interview on September 12, , Soma Somasegar (vice president of Microsoft's development software division) confirmed that "Windows Store apps" would be the official term for the apps. An MSDN page explaining the Metro design language uses the term "Modern design" to refer to the language as a whole.
Exceptions to the restrictions faced by Windows Store apps are given to web browsers. The user's default browser can distribute a Metro-style web browser in the same package as the desktop variant, which has access to functionality unavailable to other apps, such as being able to permanently run in the background, use multiple background processes, and use Windows API code instead of WinRT (allowing for code to be re-used with the desktop variant, while still taking advantage of features available to Windows Store apps, such as charms). Microsoft advertises this exception privilege "New experience enabled" (formerly "Metro-style enabled").
The developers of both Chrome and Firefox committed to developing Metro-style variants of their browsers; while Chrome's "Windows 8 mode" (discontinued on Chrome version 49) uses a full-screen version of the existing desktop interface, Firefox's variant (which was first made available on the "Aurora" release channel in September ) uses a touch-optimized interface inspired by the Android variant of Firefox. In October , Chrome's app was changed to mimic the desktop environment used by Chrome OS. Development of the Firefox app for Windows 8 has since been cancelled, citing a lack of user adoption for the beta versions.
Interface and desktop
Windows 8 introduces significant changes to the operating system's user interface, many of which are aimed at improving its experience on tablet computers and other touchscreen devices. The new user interface is based on Microsoft's Metro design language and uses a Start screen similar to that of Windows Phone 7 as the primary means of launching applications. The Start screen displays a customizable array of tiles linking to various apps and desktop programs, some of which can display constantly updated information and content through "live tiles". As a form of multi-tasking, apps can be snapped to the side of a screen. Alongside the traditional Control Panel, a new simplified and touch-optimized settings app known as "PC Settings" is used for basic configuration and user settings. It does not include many of the advanced options still accessible from the normal Control Panel.
A vertical toolbar known as the charms (accessed by swiping from the right edge of a touchscreen, swiping from the right edge of a trackpad, or pointing the cursor at hotspots in the right corners of a screen) provides access to system and app-related functions, such as search, sharing, device management, settings, and a Start button. The traditional desktop environment for running desktop applications is accessed via a tile on the Start screen. The Start button on the taskbar from previous versions of Windows has been converted into a hotspot in the lower-left corner of the screen, which displays a large tooltip displaying a thumbnail of the Start screen. However, Windows added the start button back to the taskbar after many complaints. Swiping from the left edge of a touchscreen or clicking in the top-left corner of the screen allows one to switch between apps and Desktop. Pointing the cursor in the top-left corner of the screen and moving down reveals a thumbnail list of active apps. Aside from the removal of the Start button and the replacement of the Aero Glass theme with a flatter and solid-colored design, the desktop interface on Windows 8 is similar to that of Windows 7.
Several notable features have been removed in Windows 8; support for playing DVD-Video was removed from Windows Media Player due to the cost of licensing the necessary decoders (especially for devices which do not include optical disc drives at all) and the prevalence of online streaming services. For the same reasons, Windows Media Center is not included by default on Windows 8, but Windows Media Center and DVD playback support can be purchased in the "Pro Pack" (which upgrades the system to Windows 8 Pro) or "Media Center Pack" add-on for Windows 8 Pro. As with prior versions, third-party DVD player software can still be used to enable DVD playback.
Backup and Restore, the backup component of Windows, is deprecated. It still ships with Windows 8 and continues to work on preset schedules, but is pushed to the background and can only be accessed through a Control Panel applet called "Windows 7 File Recovery".Shadow Copy, a component of Windows Explorer that once saved previous versions of changed files, no longer protects local files and folders. It can only access previous versions of shared files stored on a Windows Server computer. The subsystem on which these components worked, however, is still available for other software to use.
The minimum system requirements for Windows 8 are slightly higher than those of Windows 7. The CPU must support the Physical Address Extension (PAE), NX bit, and SSE2. Windows Store apps require a screen resolution of × or higher to run; a resolution of × or higher is required to use the snap functionality. To receive certification, Microsoft requires candidate x86 systems to resume from standby in 2 seconds or less.
Microsoft's Connected Standby specification, which hardware vendors may optionally comply with, sets new power consumption requirements that extend above the above minimum specifications. Included in this standard are a number of security-specific requirements designed to improve physical security, notably against Cold Boot Attacks.
bit SKUs of Windows 8 only support a maximum of 4 GB of RAM. bit SKUs, however support more: Windows 8 x64 supports GB while Windows 8 Pro and Enterprise x64 support GB.
In January , Microsoft announced that it would no longer support Windows or 7 on devices using Intel's Skylake CPU family effective July 17, , and that all future CPU microarchitectures, as well as Skylake systems after this date, would only be supported on Windows After the deadline, only critical security updates were to be released for users on these platforms. After this new policy faced criticism from users and enterprise customers, Microsoft partially retracted the change and stated that both operating systems would remain supported on Skylake hardware through the end of their Extended support lifecycle. Windows remains officially unsupported on all newer CPU families, and neither AMD or Intel will provide official chipset drivers for Windows operating systems other than Windows  However, on August , Microsoft again extended the Skylake support policy until the end of support for Windows 7 and ( and , respectively).
Tablets and convertibles
Microsoft released minimum hardware requirements for tablet and laplet devices to be "certified" for Windows 8 and defined a convertible form factor as a standalone device that combines the PC, display, and rechargeable power source with a mechanically attached keyboard and pointing device in a single chassis. A convertible can be transformed into a tablet where the attached input devices are hidden or removed leaving the display as the only input mechanism. On March 12, , Microsoft amended its certification requirements to only require that screens on tablets have a minimum resolution of × (down from the previous ×). The amended requirement is intended to allow "greater design flexibility" for future products.
|Graphics card||DirectX 10 graphics device with WDDM or higher driver |
|Storage||10GB free space, after the out-of-box experience completes |
|Standard buttons ||, , , , |
|Screen||Touch screen supporting a minimum of 5-point digitizers and resolution of at least × The physical dimensions of the display panel must match the aspect ratio of the native resolution. The native resolution of the panel can be greater than (horizontally) and (vertically). Minimum native color depth is bits. If the display is under ×, disclaimers must be included in documentation to notify users that the Snap function is not available.|
|Camera ||Minimum p|
|Accelerometer||3 axes with data rates at or above 50Hz |
|USB ||At least one controller and exposed port. |
|Connect ||Wi-Fi and Bluetooth + LE (low energy)|
|Other ||Speaker, microphone, magnetometer and gyroscope. |
If a mobile broadband device is integrated into a tablet or convertible system, then an assisted GPS radio is required. Devices supporting near field communication need to have visual marks to help users locate and use the proximity technology. The new button combination for Ctrl + Alt + Del is Windows Key + Power.
Updated certification requirements were implemented to coincide with Windows As of , all certified devices with integrated displays must contain a p webcam and higher quality speakers and microphones, while all certified devices that support Wi-Fi must support Bluetooth as well. As of , all certified devices must contain Trusted Platform Module chips.
Windows 8 is available in three different editions, of which the lowest edition, branded simply as Windows 8, and Windows 8 Pro, were sold at retail in most countries, and as pre-loaded software on new computers. Each edition of Windows 8 includes all of the capabilities and features of the edition below it, and add additional features oriented towards their market segments. For example, Pro added BitLocker, Hyper-V, the ability to join a domain, and the ability to install Windows Media Center as a paid add-on. Users of Windows 8 can purchase a "Pro Pack" license that upgrades their system to Windows 8 Pro through Add features to Windows. This license also includes Windows Media Center.Windows 8 Enterprise contains additional features aimed towards business environments, and is only available through volume licensing. A port of Windows 8 for ARM architecture, Windows RT, is marketed as an edition of Windows 8, but was only included as pre-loaded software on devices specifically developed for it.
Windows 8 was distributed as a retail box product on DVD, and through a digital download that could be converted into DVD or USB